Adenomyosis is a common problem in middle-aged women and women who have had children or who have had earlier uterine surgery. Adenomyosis occurs when the inner lining of the uterus (the endometrium) breaks through the muscle wall of the uterus. The relocated tissue continues to work normally. The condition can be found all over the entire uterus or restricted in one spot.
Adenomyosis is not a life-threatening problem, however, the regular pain and heavy bleeding linked with it can have a negative impact on a patient’s quality of life.
Sometimes, women diagnosed with adenomyosis have no symptoms, but the disease may cause:
Causes: The exact cause of adenomyosis isn't known, but it is said that various hormones like estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and follicle stimulating hormone can trigger the condition.
Physical exam: A pelvic exam may disclose an enlarged and tender uterus.
An ultrasound: Your doctor can see the uterus, it's lining, and its muscular wall. Although ultrasound cannot exactly diagnose adenomyosis, it can help to diagnose the other conditions with similar symptoms.
Sonohysterography: the saline solution is injected via a tiny tube into the uterus as ultrasound is given.
MRI: may be used to verify a diagnosis of adenomyosis in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
Treatment is generally based on your symptoms, their severity, and whether you have completed childbearing.
Anti-inflammatory medicines Your doctor may prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines to relieve mild pain associated with adenomyosis.
Hormone therapy Symptoms like heavy or painful periods can be treated with hormonal therapies like levonorgestrel-releasing IUD and aromatase inhibitors.
Endometrial ablation: a minimally invasive technique that destroys the lining of the uterus. The technique is effective in relieving symptoms in some patients when adenomyosis hasn't entered deeply into the muscle wall of the uterus.
Uterine artery embolization: During this minimally invasive procedure, tiny particles are used to block the blood vessels that give blood supply to the adenomyosis. The particles are guided by a tiny tube placed in by the radiologist into the patient’s femoral artery. Adenomyosis shrinks due to unavailability of blood supply.
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