IVF is a process of fertilisation by which the eggs are extracted from the ovaries of a woman, sperms are retrieved from the semen of a male, together they (the egg and the sperm) are combined in a glass jar. The egg is fertilised by this process. It is, then, implanted into the woman’s uterus. It grows to become a human baby.
The full form of IVF is In Vitro Fertilisation.
‘’In Vitro’ literally means ‘in glass’.
Because the fertilisation takes place outside the female body, in a glass jar, it is also called a Test Tube Baby.
B. WHEN IS IVF TREATMENT REQUIRED ?
IVF treatment is required when couples are unable to produce a child by natural process in spite of trying for more than a year. They are subjected to infertility.
Causes of infertility can be present either in women or in men but women have more causes than men.
Once the cause of infertility is found out, the couple should move further towards IVF treatment.
C. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF INFERTILITY IN WOMEN ?
In women, infertility happens due to many reasons, such as
Blocked Fallopian Tubes – Fallopian Tubes are the pipes in the female reproductive organ from which the male sperm travels to the female ovary to meet the egg. If they are blocked, fertilisation cannot happen. She can, therefore, never get pregnant.
Age plays a vital role in the process of fertilisation. The chances of getting pregnant in a women decreases after the age of 35 years. After the age of 43, the chances of conceiving with her own eggs are about 5%. A female in the age of 20-30 years produces healthy, good quality eggs. As she advances in age, the quality and quantity of her eggs decreases. This retards her process of fertilisation.
Endometriosis is another cause of infertility in women. It is a disorder in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus in a female ovary grows outside the uterus. This disorder also hinders the process of fertilisation.
Lifestyle factors – Poor nutrition, increased BMI, smoking, excessive alcohol and drug use are some major factors contributing to infertility.
Environmental Hazards – Growing use of laptops, electrical household gadgets and radiation emitting devices have largely contributed to the increase in infertility in women.
Infertility happens to women with eating disorders such as Anorexia or Bulimia. Also, women who follow a very low calorie or restrictive diet face the infertility hazard.
Ovulatory Dysfunction leads to infertility in women.
If she has gone through multiple miscarriages, she may become infertile.
Infertility can happen to a woman if she has undergone treatment of cancer.
D. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF INFERTILITY IN MEN ?
Stress, pollution and the intake of adulterated, impure foods has given rise to infertility in men. A man becomes infertile if
He has a low sperm count or other problems with sperm quality.
Movement of the sperms is slow.
He has difficulty in ejaculation of the semen.
He has a history of testicular prostate or several problems.
He has undergone treatment of cancer.
He has testicles that are small in size or swelling in the scrotum.
He has others in his family with infertility problems.
He wishes to avoid passing on inherited genetic disorders to his children.
E. WHEN SHOULD COUPLES DECIDE TO UNDERTAKE AN IVF TREATMENT ?
Couples, usually, go for an IVF when they have tried all possible ways to have a child from 5 to 25 years of marriage and have failed.
But the golden period of fertility in a woman is when she is between 20 – 30 years. This period is lost in making futile efforts to get pregnant. As the age increases, her eggs decrease in quality and number.
Therefore, a couple who has tried to have a child for one year and are still not successful to conceive naturally, should not waste time.
They should go to a fertility centre to get examined and find out the cause of their infertility.
DOCTOR’S ADVICE – If a couple has tried standard treatments too and still failed to have a baby, they should get an IVF done at the right time. This will improve the chance of IVF success.
F. WHAT IS IVF PROCESS (STEP BY STEP NARRATION)
Female ovary normally produces one egg per month. In the IVF treatment , multiple eggs are needed. In order to make it produce multiple eggs, it is stimulated by hormonal injections.
Ultrasound scans and blood tests are used to monitor the follicles in the vagina.
Mature eggs are retrieved with the help of a needle under local/general anaesthesia.
The retrieved oocytes (eggs) are identified under the microscope.
The fertilised eggs are placed in a suitable culture medium immediately for few hours.
Then sperms are injected into drops of culture medium containing eggs.
These sperms will actively swim in the medium. Few will be able to get into the eggs.
After approximately 17 hours, the sperm and egg will fuse together to form a fertilised embryo or embryos.
The best embryo or embryos are transferred to the female uterus by the doctor using a catheter under the ultrasound guidance.
If there are “extra” high quality embryos left over, they can be freezed. This is called Embryo Cryopreservation. They can be used later if this IVF cycle isn’t successful, in a frozen embryo transfer or can be donated.
Patients will have their pregnancy tests done about two weeks later to confirm whether successful implantation of the embryo has taken place.
If the test is positive (yeah!), occasional blood tests and ultrasounds will be done to monitor the pregnancy.
G . FLOWCHART TO SHOW THE IVF PROCESS STEP BY STEP
Consultation – Baseline Blood work and Ultrasound – Ovarian Stimulation - Oocyte Maturation - Egg Retrieval - Fertilisation - Embryo Transfer - Two Week Wait – Pregnancy Test
H. WHAT ARE THE IVF SUCCESS Rate?
The success rate is consistently high with 30% - 50% for women less than 35 years of age and with 25% - 30% for women more than 35 years of age .
IVF success rate decreases with age .
29 % for women under 35 years
23 % for women aged 35 -37 years
15 % for women 38 – 39 years
9 % for women 40 – 42 years
3 % for women 43 – 44 years
2 % for women aged over 44 years
Sometimes when the female eggs are of inferior quality, the couple makes use of donor eggs which are of another woman of a young age , to perform the IVF procedure .
Vice a versa , sometimes when the male sperm is not suitable for fertilisation, a donor sperm of another man is used to conduct the IVF fertilisation. These donor sperms are obtained from donor banks . IVF success rate with donor eggs are even higher than a women younger than 35 years using her own eggs . Donor eggs offer the best chance for success .
I . WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CONCERNS OF THE PATIENTS BEFORE UNDERGOING AN IVF TREATMENT ?
The patient is mainly concerned about 3 things
Her well being
IVF procedure she will undergo
The child to be born
J . WHAT ARE THE QUESTIONS A PATIENT ASKS ?
Can I work ?
Work can be continued during IVF procedure . In fact , work should not be left because when you are busy , IVF results come positive as seen in many cases . When you sit at home with no work , you will be thinking about IVF and may think negatively. Work generates positivity leading to positive IVF results .
Can I eat any food ?
Any food you are used too can be had continuously. Just avoid food from outside as it may cause stomach disorder or any other health problem. Smoking and alcohol are strictly prohibited during IVF treatment as it adversely affects the growth of the unborn child in the womb of the patient .
Do I need bed rest after Embryo Transfer?
No bed rest is required after embryo transfer. In fact, you can carry on with all your normal activities and movements like walking etc. as you did before.
How much time is required for the IVF procedure ?
IVF treatment starts from the second day of the period of a woman. In total , 10 days are required from the beginning of the IVF procedure in which you will have to visit your clinic frequently.
Follicle monitoring is done . Then some injections are given to increase the number of eggs produced in a female ovaries. These eggs are removed from the female body to be fertilised by a male sperm outside in a laboratory dish.
The fertilised egg is then placed in the woman’s uterus. This entire process is done in 10 days. Once this implant takes place the patient is free to go back to her town if she has come from outside to get an IVF treatment done .
K. WHAT ARE SOME IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT IVF TREATMENT ?
IVF is a normal medical technique – one should not fear it .
Many couples get success in the first cycle of IVF.
But some have to undergo repeated cycles of IVF to attain success. It may go up to 6 IVF cycle also .
IVF has a higher risk of conceiving multiples. Twins, triplets or more can be produced.
The embryo transfer may cause mild cramping during the procedure. Rarely, women will also experience cramping, bleeding or spotting after the transfer.
Otherwise, IVF treatment is safe and medical complications are rare.
Women who have been previously pregnant are in many cases more successful with IVF treatments than those who have never been pregnant.
L. WHAT IS THE BENEFIT OF IVF ?
As per WHO, 50-80 million couples worldwide today experience infertility, out of which 17.9 million alone are in India. IVF enables infertile couples have children and give them the greatest happiness in the world.
Lack of a child can lead to enormous frustration and depression. IVF brings a new hope into the lives of many helpless infertile couples by giving them the gift of a child. It completes their families .
Therefore, IVF is a BLESSING given to the mankind by the advance medical science.
M. WHY IS INFERTILITY INCREASING AND HOW IS IVF HELPING THE CHILDLESS COUPLES
Prevalence of infertility has more than doubled in the last decade and has gone up to 20 – 25 % . Late marriages , stress, exposure to toxic substances in either the diet or environment and a career – centric lifestyle has let to a rise in infertility.
Medical tourists seeking fertility treatments are coming in large number from far and near . This has led to awareness and acceptance of fertility treatments such IVF .
Married couples are now seeking the aid of IVF treatment procedures at cost effective fees in large numbers.
IVF has given hope to many childless couples and unlike before seeking medical help in such cases is no longer considered a taboo .
N. WHAT IS THE IVF TREATMENT COST ?
Cost of IVF varies depending upon the program chosen and complexity of the patient . On an average , it ranges from Rs 1,00,000 – 1,50,000 per cycle .
O. WHICH IS THE BEST IVF CENTRE IN DELHI / NCR
There are many competent IVF centres in Delhi/ NCR , UPHI being one of them .
UPHI , The Wellness and Surgical Centre is one of the top fertility clinic with world class facilities , Personalised care , Advanced Technologies , Treatment Excellences , Top Fertility Specialists using high tech medical devices, Experienced Embryologist and above all a comfortable and friendly environment which is so conducive to an IVF treatment .
As soon as you walk inside our clinic , you can feel the positive energy .
Our counselling staff understands that for couples , the issue of infertility is a sensitive one . So they treat every patient specifically according to the individual’s problems.
Apart from offering highly successful treatment, we make every patient physically and emotionally comfortable throughout the entire process .
We have a mission to provide standardised , high quality IVF and fertility treatment in a cost effective and transparent manner . We aim to make PARENTHOOD A REALITY .