An anal fissure is a small tear in the skin that lines the opening of the anus. Fissures usually cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements. Fissures may be caused by a hard dry bowel movement or loose frequent bowel movements The aim of prevention and treatment of anal fissures is to ease pain and discomfort and heal the torn lining. The acute type anal fissures are more common and usually heal on their own with self-care whereas chronic anal fissures need medicines or surgery to cure them.
If constipation or diarrhea is the cause of your fissures, you may relieve symptoms and support healing with some changes in your lifestyle.
Stay hydrated: Drink lots of water and other healthy fluids to stay hydrated.
Eat a fiber-rich diet: Eat at least 20-35 grams of fiber to avoid constipation. Eat whole grains, fruits, and vegetables as they are a good source of fiber.
Exercise regularly: Regular exercise improves blood circulation which may support in curing the fissure.
Laxatives: Consult your doctor take laxatives.
Avoid straining: Don't strain during bowel movements.
Get your constipation and diarrhea treated: Get treatment of constipation and diarrhea to avoid fissures.
Sitz baths: Soak your rectal area in a tub of warm water for few minutes twice or thrice a day to clean the anus, increase blood flow and relax your sphincter muscles.
The doctor may recommend a topical anesthetic. For the prolonged burning sensation after bowel movements, acetaminophen or ibuprofen can be helpful. Topical nitroglycerin medication may help to increase fissure healing by widening the blood vessels in the area.
Calcium channel blockers: They relax the sphincter muscle and increase the flow of blood to the affected area, which speeds up healing.
A steroid ointment or cream: This will reduce inflammation around the affected area and decreases itching and pain.
Botox: Botox is useful in many disorders with muscle spasms.
Internal sphincterotomy: For chronic fissures, which do not heal, surgery may be an option. A segment of the anal sphincter muscle is removed by surgery, resulting in fewer and less severe spasms.
Fissurectomy: It is a rare surgical removal of the fissure that may be used in children.
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